16th International Conference on

Mathematical Modelling

and Analysis

May 25-28, 2011, Sigulda, Latvia


 Conference Themes


 First announcement

 Second announcement

 Abstracts and Proceedings


 Conference Programme

 List of Participants

 Social Programme



 MMA Journal

 About Latvia, Riga and Sigulda

 Republic of Latvia, abbreviated: Latvia

On 18 November 1918 Latvia proclaimed its independence. Starting 1920 its national identity, despite the annex by the Soviet Union (1940-1941, 1945-1991) and the occupation by the Nazi Germany (1941-1945), was acknowledged by foreign countries. On 21 August 1991 Latvia declared the recovery of its independence de facto.

Where is Latvia situated?

The Republic of Latvia is situated almost in the geographical centre of Europe.  Latvia is a North-European state of the total area of 64,589 km² situated on the shore of the Baltic Sea and the Riga Gulf. The maximum length of the territory in the West-to-East direction is 450 km, and South-to-North - 210 km.
The overland state border length is 1368 km, and the sea border is 494 km long. On the land the Republic of Latvia borders on Lithuania, Estonia, Russia, Belarus, and at sea – on Lithuania and Estonia.

About Latvia

The unit of money in the Republic of Latvia

1 Lat (1 Ls = 100 santims)

The Lat is freely convertible currency. The exchange rate set by the Bank of Latvia on 24.03.2011

1 EUR 0.7028
1 USD 0.4960
1 GBP 0.8120
1 RUB 0.0176
1 LTL 0.2040


The national currency - the lats - was introduced in 1993. You can get 5-, 10-, 20-, 50-, 100- and 500- lats banknotes, and 1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 50- santims and 1- and 2- lats.

Most Latvian banks are open from 9:00 AM until 5:00 PM on weekdays, while some are also open on Saturday mornings. 


Credit cards can be used in Latvia, and the most common ones are VISA International, Euro card and MasterCard.  Less commonly found are American Express, Diner’s Club and Eurocheque. All of the aforementioned cards can be used to withdraw cash advances from ATMs.


Riga, the capital of Latvia, was officially founded in 1201.

Riga is located along the Baltic Sea at the southern coast of the Gulf of Riga, on the Rigava coastal plain. The historical core of Riga is situated on the right bank of the Daugava River, about 10 kilometers from where the Daugava flows into the Gulf of Riga. The natural terrain of this area is a flat and sandy plain, about 1 to 10 meters above the sea level.

Climate in Riga is influenced by its proximity to the sea; therefore it is moderately warm and humid. Summers are comparatively cool and cloudy (average temperature in July +16.9 C; average precipitation (rainfall) – 85 mm). Winters are comparatively warm with frequent thaws (average temperature in January – 4,7 C, thaw days are about 10 days a month). Snow cover forms in the middle of December and remain through the middle of March. About 40% of the days in a year are cloudy (overcast), average precipitation – 700-720 mm a year.

 The area of Riga covers 307.17 km2, including:
- Residential areas  67.00 km2 (21.8%)
- Industrial areas 52.45 km2 (17.0%)
- Streets and roads  24.64 km2 (8.0%)
- Parks    57.54 km2 (19.0%)
- Water   48.50 km2 (15.8%)

Inhabitants - there are 747,2 thousand inhabitants residing in Riga, 333,3 - males, 413,9 (55.4%) - females. The density of the population is 2434 per 1 km2

About Riga and Riga tourism



o       Sigulda (German: Siegewald) is town in the Vidzeme region in Latvia, 53 km from the capital city Riga.
o       Sigulda is situated in a picturesgue part of Gauja National Park territory.
o       Get from Riga to Sigulda is very easy – by train or by bus which goes every hour.
o       Sigulda is crossing A2 autoroad Rīga – Veclaicene.
o       Number of inhabitants in Sigulda town in 2006 was 10 641.
The most popular historical objects and monuments of culture
o       Medieval Sigulda Castle - built by the Order of the Brethren of the Sword.
o       Sigulda New Castle- it was built as a living house for the manor owners  Kropotkins from 1878 – 1881.
o       Turaida Medieval Castle (1214) and Turaida Museum Reserve (1988).
o       Krimulda Medieval Castle – it was built in classical style (1848).
o       Painter’s hill – the hill offer a spectacular view and it is portrayed in the works of many painters.
o       Satesele Castle Mound – it was significant Gauja Liv fortification.
o       Devil’s Cave – similar to other sandstone outcroppings, this cliff was also formed over 300 million years ago.
About Sigulda


Last update: March 24, 2011

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